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    HOMEX - Brisbane


    The following information provides greater detail on the various
    aspects of ViroSewage(TM) technology and provides examples of some of
    the associated markets.


    Older sewage treatment works are now much closer to urban centres
    than when they were first built. Expanding cities and towns mean that
    houses are located close to the original treatment works. Complaints
    frequently refer to the unpleasant odour emanating from the open
    basins where the wastewater is treated and to the odour released from
    biosolids (treated sludge) stored at composting sites or sent to
    landfill. In some crowded cities, governments have been forced to
    replace all the conventional open tanks in sewage treatment works
    with covered units to control the emission of foul air.

    ViroSewage(TM) technology can be applied upstream of known odour
    sources within a treatment facility, resulting in a reduction in the
    biological production of organic and inorganic volatile sulphur
    compounds that cause odour problems, virtually eliminating the
    discharge of odour from these points to the atmosphere.

    ViroSewage(TM) technology is a breakthrough in an industry that has
    employed various unsuccessful means to control odour pollution,
    including the addition to sewage of water, oxygen, lime, hydrogen
    peroxide, biological additives, and the use of air phase odour
    controls such as activated carbon adsorbers, biofilters and odour
    neutralising agents.


    In China all cities are required to establish wastewater treatment
    facilities that process 45 per cent of sewage by 2005 and 60 per cent
    by 2010. Since 1998, the Chinese government has invested 200 billion
    yuan (24 billion U.S. dollars) annually in urban construction. The
    United Nations Industrial Development Organization has promised to
    allocate 30 billion U.S. dollars to help sewage treatment in major
    Chinese cities in the next decade.

    A facility employing ViroSewage(TM) technology should have no odour
    pollution concerns.

    As several major companies are currently competing to establish
    treatment facilities in China, the Directors believe Virotec's
    technology can significantly influence proximity considerations of
    any proposed development and this could lead to a significant
    reduction in capital outlay. Throughout the world, planning
    authorities refuse planning permission on the grounds that the odour
    nuisance from the proposed development will be detrimental to the
    amenity of the area and subsequently, sewage treatment facilities are
    required to be located a significant distance from urban centres.


    In the US, a nationwide analysis revealed that between 1968 and 1996
    the EPA provided $61.1 billion in Federal Construction Grants Program
    funds to help fund new or upgrade existing publicly owned treatment
    facilities to cope with increasing demand. The States, local
    authorities and private sector made an even greater investment of
    well over $200 billion. The survey also revealed the overall number
    of people served by publicly owned treatment facilities increased
    from 140.1 million in 1968 to 189.7 million in 1996 (a 35% increase)
    and the number of people served by publicly owned treatment
    facilities with secondary or greater levels of wastewater treatment
    almost doubled from 85.9 million in 1968 to 164.8 million in 1996.

    Throughout the world, local governments are being asked to play a
    larger role in water resources financing to cope with rapidly
    increasing hydraulic and organic loads on sewage treatment
    facilities. For instance, in Australia, approximately 70% of the
    population live in large metropolitan centres with the consequence
    that large volumes of sludge are produced in a few centralised

    ViroSewage(TM) technology stimulates faster particle-fluid separation
    resulting in up to a 50% reduction in residence time in the final
    clarifier. This has significant repercussions for treatment plants
    operating at 100% capacity and facing costly upgrades. Potentially,
    the ViroSewage(TM) process allows existing plants to significantly
    increase current capacity without substantial increase in capital

    Furthermore, ViroSewage(TM) technology almost eliminates the need for
    costly flocculants.


    The total volume of treated water in North America is about 20
    gallons per person per day, or 100 trillion gallons per year. It is
    accepted worldwide that phosphorus needs to be removed from sewage
    effluent before discharge, to prevent enhanced eutrophication
    (especially blue green algae) particularly in shallow fresh water
    bodies. However, quite often, the liquid effluent discharge pipes
    from many municipal sewage treatment plants are "point sources" of
    immense quantities of nutrients (nitrate and phosphate). EPA
    regulatory authorities worldwide continually seek reductions in the
    discharge of phosphorous nutrients from treated sewage effluent.

    A further phase of the ViroSewage(TM) treatment reduces the soluble
    inorganic phosphorous content in sewage effluent to the minimum
    theoretical solubility limit for phosphate precipitates. In turn, up
    to 85% of the phosphate nutrient is transferred to the VST enriched
    biosolids in a remarkably stable form, where it remains stable even
    in anoxic conditions. Unlike normal biosolids, phosphate enriched VST
    biosolids can potentially be used to improve soils whose pH is even
    less than 5.5

    ViroSewage(TM) technology, when tested at a conventional sewage
    treatment plant, improved the traditional poor rate of phosphorous
    removal from the effluent stream from approximately 10% - 30% to over

    In a Biological Nutrient Removal sewage treatment plant, phosphate
    removal is highly dependent on both the incoming phosphate loading
    and the current plant operating conditions. Disruption to the BNR
    process may result from large variation in hydraulic flow, material
    overload, chemical or toxic shock, all of which generally result in
    excessive phosphate discharge.

    ViroSewage(TM) technology at a BNR plant, not only ensures the
    removal of over 99% of phosphorous from the effluent stream, it
    allows the BNR process to concentrate exclusively on the removal of
    nitrogen, considerably improving the efficiency of the BNR process
    and effectively reducing manpower hours needed for critical ongoing
    BNR management.


    The EU estimates 67% of European biosolids in the short term, and 83%
    in the long term, fail to comply with limit values on heavy metals or
    organic compounds in sludge or in soil. Without the ability to comply
    with the stricter restrictions that are currently being imposed, it
    has been estimated that local authorities may have to bear a cost of
    up to 60% for the cost of switching from land-spreading to
    incineration of biosolids.

    In the USA, the EPA has recently proposed strict guidelines for the
    disposal of biosolids in landfills, depending on the proximity of the
    landfill to pristine groundwater which is an irreplaceable source of
    drinking water. Leachate problems can arise from zinc, copper, lead
    and even cadmium found in biosolids produced in large cities.

    ViroSewage(TM) technology can be used to immobilize heavy metals in
    biosolids so that stringent standards for leachability of heavy
    metals are met.


    Local governments make the decision whether to incinerate biosolids,
    bury them in a landfill, dump them in oceans or recycle them as a
    fertilizer. In Sydney, Australia, for example, large volumes of
    sludge will continue to be produced in the coastal suburbs while the
    nearest suitable land-fill sites could be as much as 100km away. In
    fact, just over half the world's population - around 3.2 billion
    people - occupy a coastal strip 200 kilometres wide (120 miles),
    representing only 10 per cent of the earth's land surface. When
    biosolids are successfully recycled, they can be applied as
    fertilizer to sustainably improve and maintain productive soils and
    stimulate plant growth.

    In the USA, only biosolids that meet the most stringent standards
    spelled out in the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Federal and
    state rules can be approved for use as a fertilizer. Since 1992, when
    a ban on ocean dumping was instituted, applying biosolids to land has
    reduced the amount of sewage sludge that would otherwise need to be
    buried in landfills or incinerated. About 60 percent of sewage sludge
    produced is converted for land application. In 1998 the quantity of
    sludge generated in the US was estimated to be approximately 7.5
    million dry tons per year.

    In Europe, the total amount of sludge produced in the fifteen EU
    Member States is predicted to increase from 6.6 million tonnes of dry
    matter in 1992 to at least 9.4 million tonnes in 2005. Most experts,
    particularly from the European Union, consider some form of
    land-spreading as the most sustainable way. The EU expects the
    proportion of sludge used for agriculture and soil conditioning to
    have increased by 73% by 2005, to 53 % of the total produced.

    In response to environmental concerns, more and more local
    governments are selecting alternatives for their biosolids that will
    do the most for organics recycling and beneficial reuse. Many local
    governments are choosing composting to produce a value-added product
    that is saleable in multiple markets. Composting is primarily the
    acceleration of natural biodegradation.

    The elevated temperatures of the controlled aeration, which is
    produced by the microbial action, significantly reduces pathogens and
    breaks down the composting mass until a stabilized product is

    Traditionally, the natural biological action creates a temperature
    rise ranging from 55C to 65C and the reaction temperature in the pile
    must be at least 55deg.C for three weeks to achieve efficient
    pasteurization. ViroSewage(TM) technology results in the temperature
    rising as high as 85deg.C while reducing the possibility of
    spontaneous combustion and eliminating 100% of pathogens, generally
    within 24 hours of reaching this temperature.

    ViroSewage(TM) technology also results in a 65% reduction in time
    required for the composting stabilization process enabling faster
    turnover and significantly reducing the size of the composting

    Biosolids composting also requires the addition of a bulking agent to
    provide air space and to make the mixture permeable. Typical bulking
    agents include green mulch, wood chips, shredded bark, sawdust,
    shredded paper other materials. ViroSewage(TM) technology results in
    a 40% reduction in the required volume of the bulking agent and,
    again this contributes to a large reduction in the size of the
    composting facility.

    ViroSewage(TM) technology not only contributes to faster composting,
    it also vastly improves the quality of the end products for market
    which range from a superior composted product, a first class soil
    conditioner and even a retail potting mix.

    Traditionally, all facilities handling biosolids produce odours and
    frequently composting facilities are forced to operate at reduced
    capacity due to objectionable odour issues. In the US several of the
    large composting facilities have designed and engineered expensive
    air scrubbers to reduce emissions. ViroSewage(TM) technology
    eliminates offensive odour pollution.

    Composting facilities also require drainage systems and a "pond" to
    catch runoff to eliminate chances of non-point source pollution from
    noxious leachate. ViroSewage(TM) technology significantly reduces
    leachate run off.

    It is becoming increasingly obvious that composted biosolids have
    enormous reuse potential. In the US, products from composted
    biosolids are used on some of the most high-profile lawns and gardens
    in the country; including, the White House, Mount Vernon, the
    Governor's Mansion in Annapolis, Maryland and the celebrated Orioles
    Park at Camden Yards in Baltimore. When Tiger Woods and the rest of
    the 1997 U.S. Open Tour strode the fairways at Congressional Country
    Club in Potomac, MD, they were walking on grass fed with a composted
    by-product. In Australia, composted by-products are also used on
    public sites such as parks, golf courses, lawns and home gardens.

    In conclusion, ViroSewage(TM) technology is a breakthrough technology
    that compliments and optimises all the material flows and processes
    associated with sewage treatment including final disposal.

    For further information please contact Virotec International,
    + 617 5530 8014 or [email protected]

    ABN 81 004 801 398
    PO BOX 188

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