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# #GRADEisKING CLEANEST Spodumene available, page-18

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Refer back to my embedded posts in the post above:

Summary
:
In terms of your patent it depends what they are defining as lithium oxide. Is it lithium oxide as per chemistry tables or is it 6% Li20?

Conversions below

1. Spodumene grades theoretically 8.03% Li20, so if exporting 6% grade spodumene in effect saying 74.7% of that concentrate is spodumene - https://www.911metallurgist.com/blog/froth-flotation-spodumene-processing-lithium-extraction.

Also see - https://www.sgs.com/~/media/Global/Documents/Flyers%20and%20Leaflets/SGS-MIN-WA109-Hard-Rock-Lithium-Processing-EN-11.pdf:

Maths - 6/8.03 = 74.7%
Maths - 7/8.03 = 87%

2. At 8.03% theoretical Li20, essentially saying Li content is 3.73% (as you divide by 2.153 to go from Li20 to Li). At 6% grade spodumene Li content is 2.78%.
https://www.savannahresources.com/lithium/lithium-overview/

Maths - need to open the links::
The spodumene formula is LiAlSi2O6 and spodumene concentrate we define as Li20 (i.e. 6% grade spodumene concentrate)
https://www.convertunits.com/molarmass/LiAlSi2O6
https://www.convertunits.com/molarmass/Li2O

1. So first convertion variable for going to an oxide = 1/((6.941*2)/(29.8814) = 2.153 (Note: these numbers are sourced from the above https://www.convertunits.com/molarmass/Li2O link). So this is how you get the often quoted 2.153 that you multiply Li to get to an oxide.

2. LiAlSi2O6 has Li of 3.73 so converting that to an oxide, by multiplying by 2.153, becomes 8.03% That is how you get this theoretical maximum you get in the various ore bodies,and here talking spodumene. It is why people say petalite for example is a lower grade ore than spodumene because the implicit theoretical Li20 limit in that ore is lower than spodumen. Refer back to - https://www.convertunits.com/molarmass/LiAlSi2O6

3. So if selling something at 6% spodumene concentrate (i.e. Li20) what you are saying is 75% of the Li20 is spodumene, or the Li in the concentrate is 2.79% to be precise (i.e. 6%/8/03*3.73 Li in LiAlSi2O6). But in terms of 'pureness' as lithium oxide that concentrate is not as pure as lithium oxide naturally.

Source Table - refer https://batteryindustry.tech/dictionary/lithium-carbonate-equivalent-or-lce/
(This table also conforms to the BGS table above)

You can see the conversions in the table and you can see my posts above on how I convert date to spodumene tonnes. But lets take lithium oxide, and go back to this chemistry link https://www.convertunits.com/molarmass/Li2O

You can see where the 46.5% Li comes from in th above link - it is (6.941*2)/29.8814.

You can do the same exercise for the others:
1. Lithium hydroxide monohydrate - see https://www.convertunits.com/molarmass/LiOH.H2O - essentially is 6.941/41.96362 = 16.5% Li Multiply that by 2.153 and what you are saying is that monohydrate is equivalent to 35.6% of Lithium Oxide (noing lithiumxide in the table is 1, of which 0.465 units are Li).
2. You can go through the same process for carbonate

Not sure if that helps you, but takes a while to understand the terminology etc etc, and where spodumene concentrate/sulphate fits into the picture etc etc. Anyway, suggest that this post be read with the conversions in the previous post.

In terms of stability depends what you are using it for. Take lithium carbonate, you convert it to lithium chloride and then through another process make a metal out of it (and you would expect metal to be stable). In other words it is what you convert the Lithium Oxide if grading at 46.5% Li that is the key (as an oxide though you multiply 46.5% * 2.153 = 100%, hence the term lithium oxide). Or another way to put it the oxygen atom weighs more than the two units of Li in Li20.

Lithium is the third lightest element.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chemical_element

Probably doesn't help people as I can't explain simply some of this stuff, so hopefully might help you in whatever research you are seeking to do here.

To take this further,if we go back to sulphate and this pic I posted:

So you have spodumene concentrate - and the spodumene concentrate has some impurities in it - which is converted to sulphate after the calcination and roasting process. That sulphate solution still contains impurities and then you have an ion exchange process to remove them to get to hydroxide monohydrate etc etc

If this helps it helps, if it doesn't it is because I confused myself with beer in hand.

All IMO

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