ADN 30.0% 13.0¢ andromeda metals limited

General comments/chat, page-177

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    Nanoclays market expected to have a CAGR of 12% PA from 2014 to 2023. Market to grow to US $3.37B by 2023. Andromeda will be entering it at the right time (during a significant growth phase) and the size and purity of their deposit will enable them to do this quickly, economically and position themselves as a significant player ( they have interest from potential customers for Halloysite-Kaolin feedstock in China, Japan and Europe ).

    https://www.transparencymarketresearch.com/nanoclays-market.html

    The global nanoclay market is expected to have an opportunity worth US$3,369.3 mn by 2023 as compared to US$1,222.0 mn in 2014 due to commercialization of nanoclay-reinforced polymers and their growing demand in nanocomposites, which is likely to reduce the price of the final products in the overall market. The market is expected to expand at a CAGR of 12.0% between 2015 and 2023.

    The main source is currently in New Zealand:
    I found this description of that operation from a South Australian government report:

    The Kerikeri-Matauri Bay area of Northland, North Island, New Zealand, ~240 km north of Auckland, has been a source of halloysite clays for industry since the late 1940s. In 1969, a wet process plant was installed at the Matauri Bay deposit to reduce the silica content of the halloysite clay product in order to access higher-value markets (Townsend and Marsters, 2002).

    Since the mid 1970s, this has been the dominant continuous supplier of halloysite worldwide, averaging around 20,000 tonnes per annum (tpa). The operation was acquired in 2000 by Imerys from former owners New Zealand China Clays Ltd. Imerys Tableware NZ Ltd currently mine raw clay from open pit mines developed in the Matauri Bay and nearby Mahimahi rhyolite domes (Fig. 3). The raw clay contains around 50% halloysite, 50% silica minerals (quartz, cristobalite, tridymite, amorphous silica), and minor feldspar.

    The halloysite is separated using wet process methods. As-mined clay is blended from stockpiles and wet ground in a pan mill to <5 mm. This is followed by high solids sand grinding and initial classification using hydrocyclones and settling boxes. Centrifuges are used to reduce the levels of fine-grained silica and to achieve separation of clay with median particle size 0.3 μm and 96% <2 μm (Luke, 1997, Wilson, 2004a). The beneficiated clay is thickened, then dewatered by filter pressing and the filtercake is either extruded at 37% moisture content or shredded and dried to produce granules and powders with 3-4% moisture content (Townsend and Marsters, 2002). Halloysite product from the Matauri Bay plant has high natural whiteness due to low Fe2O3 and TiO2 contents of <0.30% and <0.1% respectively. Almost all the product is exported, primarily for use in quality tableware ceramics, porcelain and bone china, with around 15% for technical ceramics, principally synthetic zeolite-base molecular sieves and in the manufacture of honeycomb catalyst supports (Christie et al., 2000; Clarke, 2008).

    The difference for Andromeda, is that because of the very high purity of their deposit they are planning to dry-process to remove the sand content and then ship a beneficiated feedstock. This can be further wet-processed overseas (e.g. China), to produce the higher grade products through toll processing.

    I'm guessing the dry-processed product can be directly used by ceramic end-users and the wet-processed product used for the higher-value high-tech applications.

    I found this description of Halloysite Nanoclay applications. Extract from: https://www.reade.com/products/halloysite-nano-clay-al2si2o5-oh-42h2o-sio2

    Halloysite clay is used to produce the highest quality tableware china manufacture including porcelain, bone china and fine china.

    The fineness of particle size enables halloysite clays to be used extensively as suspension agents in glaze preparations. The purity of the clay and the low iron and titania content produce exceptional whiteness and translucency to ceramic ware.

    A small but increasing amount is used for hi-tech ceramic applications. Honeycomb catalyst support units are used in the exhaust systems of motor vehicles to clean up exhaust gases. Molecular sieves (synthetic Zeolites) are used in a wide range of applications including separation of liquids and gaseous mixtures, water purification, and in refining industries.

    Halloysite microtubules can act as a time release capsule, dissolving over time, and can be filled with such things as antifouling paint, antiscalants, herbicides, pest repellants, and other agents that could benefit from a controlled release.

    Niche applications include: carriers of active ingredients in paints, coatings and building materials, agricultural applications and high performance fillers in plastic composites.

    The main target markets for halloysite are: nanocomposites, high-performance polymer reinforcement, controlled release of biological and chemical agents and advanced ceramics

    Interesting to look at the retail value of a downstream Halloysite Nanoclay product:
    1. 100-gram satchel @ AUD $90
    2. 500-gram satchel @ AUD $183

    Source: https://www.sigmaaldrich.com/catalog/product/aldrich/685445?lang=en&amp;region=AU

    Screen Shot 2019-06-06 at 7.56.49 am.png

    Andromeda identify bulk pricing for Pure Halloysite at > USD $3000 per tonne. I guess in the wet-processed form.

    Screen Shot 2019-06-06 at 9.23.57 am.png

    There are 2N to 5N ranges of product. From https://www.americanelements.com/halloysite-nanoclay-1332-58-7

    (unable to confirm pricing)

    Screen Shot 2019-06-06 at 8.14.49 am.png

    Halloysite Nanoclay is also used in drug delivery: https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1517/17425247.2016.1169271

    Highlights from above link:
    • Halloysites are biocompatible and ecofriendly clay nanotubes for drug delivery with controlled release.
    • This clay has been used by humans for centuries and showed no toxicity against biocells and animals.
    • Drug release for cream, tablets, and polymer composites may be adjusted for days and weeks with the tube-ends capping.
    • It has large potential for sustained drug release from implantable devices (i.e.bone cement, dentistry, etc.)
    • Halloysite-antiseptic spray or coatings may provide sustained antimicrobial treating and prevent infections.

    Similarly from one of the Andromeda announcements:

    https://www.asx.com.au/asxpdf/20190516/pdf/4454dccghxfydb.pdf

    Screen Shot 2019-06-06 at 8.50.22 am.png
 
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