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enhanced oil recovery co2 flooding

  1. cya
    3,836 Posts.
    The CO2 EOR Experience in the US and Texas

    It is the unique properties of supercritical CO2 that improves oil production in the final (tertiary) phase of reservoir life, which allows operators to recover oil that would otherwise remain in the ground after the end of conventional water-flooding. This was first exploited in the mature fields of the Permian Basin, west Texas, during the early 1970s.

    To defray higher costs associated with CO2 for EOR projects, the US tax code has included ‘tertiary incentives’ since 1979 including an exception that allowed CO2-EOR crude to be sold at then free market prices, an exemption from the US windfall profits tax and a credit for production fuels from non-conventional sources. Finally, the US Federal EOR Tax Incentive was codified in 1986 enabling a 15% investment tax credit. There are currently eight states that offer additional EOR tax-incentives on incremental oil. CO2 EOR floods recover 206,000 barrels of oil per day (BOPD) representing 12% of the US oil production.

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    potentially 1-2 years before flow

    Project cash flow – a major objection to CO2- floods by operators in the US and Canada has been the relatively high initial investment and CO2 costs coupled with a possible long response time of one to two years before noticeable incremental oil production.

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    Summary of current EOR processes

    http://www.netl.doe.gov/technologies/oil-gas/publications/brochures/CO2Brochure_Mar2006.pdf

 
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